Nepal General Information

Nepal Map

Nestled between two-giant nations--India and China, Nepal is a tiny country in terms of its geography covering merely 147,181 sq. km. but extremely rich in terms of biodiversity, unique in its geographical positions and altitudinal variation. The elevation ranges from 700 meters above sea level in the southern plains of Tarai to the highest point of the earth--Mt. Everest (8,848 m) and hosts of majestic mountains on the northern part of the country stretching from east to the west of the country.

Geographically Nepal is small, as it covers merely 0.1 percent of the total landmass of the earth, although it is small, it is home to over 876 species of birds that stands 8 percent of the world population of birds. Similarly, it is also the home to over 6,500 species of flowering plants that stands nearly 2 percent of the world's flowering plants, nearly about 208 mammals species--4 percent of the mammals on the earth, over 651 species of butterfly (nearly about 11, of the world 15-families of butterflies), over 118 amphibians, 78 reptile species, 187 fish, over 600 indigenous plants families, 319 species of exotic orchids and so forth. This is a glimpse that how diverse and rich Nepal is.

Nepal is diverse in terms of its biodiversity, religion, culture, language, rituals, and whatnot. Of the total 14 mountains across the world above 8,000 meters, Nepal is home to the eight worlds' highest mountains. Those world's highest mountains are--Mt. Everest (8,848 m), Mt. Kanchenjunga (8,586 m), Mt. Lhotse (8,516 m), Mt. Makalu (8,463 m.), Mt. Cho Oyu (8.201 m), Mt. Dhaulagiri (8,167 m), Mt. Manaslu (8,163 m) Mt. Annapurna (8,091 m). Besides these, there are over 1,300 peaks above 6,000 m. Out of them, the government has so far opened to nearly 400 peaks including the world's highest mountains for organizing a varied range of adventure activities including mountaineering, expedition, peak climbing, trekking, and so forth.
It is not just the spectacular mountains alone that a visitor is enchanted with when s/he arrives in Nepal for the first time. The traveler is confronted with a multitude of impressions-- the dramatic monsoon skies, dazzling landscapes, terraced farm field, the beautiful architecture of ancient buildings of Kathmandu valley, or perhaps it is the people who make the greatest impression. You will be amazed and excited at seeing so many different and remarkable faces while walking to any part of Nepal, or in Kathmandu thronged with people is still an adventure. According to the latest Census, there are as many as 125 castes/ethnic groups, who speak more than 123 languages and follow as many as 10 different religions. Thus while visiting in Nepal, you will be amazed seeing unity in diversity. Nepal is undoubted a laboratory to study ethnicity, you will be amazed seeing non-stop fiestas and festivities, distinct culture, rituals, and lifestyle. It is therefore why Nepal is known to be a multi-lingual, multi-cultural, multi-religious, and multi-ethnic country. You will hardly find anywhere in the world having such diversity or pluralism in a tiny land.

The aforementioned features show that Nepal has something to offer to everyone coming to Nepal from natural wonders to a variety of cultures, flora, and fauna, exotic culture, incredible landscapes, majestic mountains, rushing rivers, glacial lakes, and forests full of wild animals.

Admiring hosts of impressions, world's renowned traveler writers have given a number of titles to Nepal, like--living cultural museum, Shangri-La, the roof of the world, the birth place of the apostle of peace, country of living goddess, Himalayan pilgrimage, the land of mysticism and exoticism, and of non-stop festival. All these features are explicit enough about what Nepal has to offer you and, all these features are explicit enough why Nepal has been one of the ultimate destinations in the world.


History of Nepal

The history of Nepal begins in the 9th century BC. The Kits were the first rulers of this country. For many centuries, Nepal remained divided into many principalities Kirats ruled in the east, the Newars in Kathmandu valley, while Gurungs and Magars occupied the mid-west.

Lichchhavis had conquered Kirats in the first century AD and then ruled until the 9th century AD. During this period, art thrived in Nepal and many beautiful woodcarvings and sculptures that are found in the country are associated with this era.

Subsequently, Thakuris conquered Lichchhavis in the 9th century AD and ruled until the 13th century.
Afterward, in 1200 AD, the Malla again conquered Lichchavis, who also said to have contributed a lot to the art and culture of Nepal. The Mallas mainly focused in Kathmandu valley.
Afterward, the Shah dynasty had reigned over Mallas and then conquered them, was Prithvi Narayan Shah, the king of Gorkha had conquered Malla rulers in Kathmandu valley along with other small principalities, and recognizing the threat of the British Raj in India he unified all the principalities into one kingdom.

During the mid-19th century, exercising absolute power Jung Bahadur Rana had become the first Prime Minister of Nepal and continuously, the Rana families had ruled the country for over one century. The Ranas were overthrown in a democracy movement of the early 1950s and Nepal enjoyed a multiparty democracy for about 10 years and again it went through one party (Panchyat) system and it enjoyed a multiparty democracy since 1990.

Nepal now is a Federal Democratic Republic state, since it was declared to be a federal republic on May 28, 2008, in the first meeting of the Constituent Assembly.


Nepal in brief

Location: Nestled between India and the Tibetan autonomous region of the Republic of China
Area: 147,181 square kilometer
Capital: Kathmandu
People: 125 castes/ethnic groups, speaking as many as 123 languages, who follow as many as 10 different religions.
Political system: multi-party democracy, Federal Republic democratic country
Topography: From the world’s deepest gorge ‘Kali-Gandaki’ to the highest point on earth ‘The Everest’
Vegetation: As per the size of the country, Nepal possesses some of the most outstanding bio-diversity in the world, ranging from sub-tropical rainforests to Alpine deserts.
Weather: Climate ranges from Tropical in the low lands to the Arctic in higher altitudes.
Season: 4-seasons--Winter (December to February), Summer (March to May), Monsoon (June to August), Autumn (September to November)
National Bird: Impian Pheasant (Danfe)
National flower: Rhododendron-Arboreum (Lali Gurans)

Nepal occupying only 0.1 percent of the total landmass of the earth is home to.

  • 2 percent of all the flowering plants in the world, 6500 flowering plants
  • 8 percent of the world’s population of birds (more than 874 species)
  • 4 percent of mammals on earth, 208 mammals species,
  • 11 of the world’s 15 families of butterflies (more than 651 species)
  • 600 indigenous plant families
  • 319 species of exotic orchid
  • 78 reptile species
  • 118 amphibian
  • 187 fish
World Heritage sites (Cultural)
  • Shoyambhu
  • Boudha
  • Changunarayan
  • Pashupatinath
  • Kathmandu Durbar Square
  • Patan Durbar Square
  • Bhaktapur Durbar Square
World heritage sites (Natural)
  • Everest National Park (1148 square kilometer
  • Royal Chitwan National Park (932 square kilometers)
National Parks:
  • Royal Bardia National Park (968 square kilometers)
  • Langtang National Park (1710 square kilometer)
  • Shey –Phoksundo National Park (3555 square kilometers)
  • Rara National Park (106 square kilometers)
  • Khaptad National Park (225 square kilometers)
  • Makalu-Barun National (2330 square kilometer)
Wildlife Reserves
  • Shukla Phanta Reserve (499 square kilometers)
  • Parsa Reserve (499 square kilometers)
  • Koshi-Tappu Reserve (175 square kilometers)
Conservation areas
  • Annapurna (2600 square kilometer)
  • Makalu-Barun (2330 square kilometer)
Hunting Reserve
  • Dhorpatan (1325 square kilometer)
Endangered Species

Tiger, Rhino, Snow leopard, Clouded leopard, Red panda, Brown bear, Assamese macaque, Gangetic dolphin, Wolf, wild elephant, Giant horn-bill, swamp deer, wild yak, Nayan, Tibetan antelope, Black buck, four-horned antelope, musk deer pigmy hog, Hispid harem Pangolin, Gharial, Indian bustard Saras crane, Impian pheasant, Python, these are some of the endangered species of the country.


Nepal harbors one of the world’s best habitats for one-horned rhino, royal Bengal tiger, snow leopard, clouded-leopard, Red panda, blue-sheep, and long-snouted fish eating Gharial. Other wildlife includes wild elephant, buffaloes, bison, blue bull, brown bear, sloth bear, leopard, crocodiles, and many varieties of a cat, dog, deer, and antelope families, and 840 different species of wet land, migratory and residential birds.

A living cultural Heritage

The heritages in Nepal are alive and dynamic. Shamanism, Pananimism, and witchcraft are still practiced in remote regions. Temples, shrines, monuments, and monasteries with devotees burning butter-lamps, singing hymns, chiming temple bells, and playing drums are spotted everywhere as a living cultural heritage.

Travel Notes

Visa: Available in Nepalese Embassies and Nepalese Consulates abroad or on arrival at Tribhuvan International Airport in Kathmandu.
Currency: Nepalese Rupees.

Time: Nepal Time is 5 hours 45 minutes ahead of GMT.

Tourism Services

Trekking Services: One of the best in the world with treks guided by world-renowned Sherpas.
White Water River Rafting: One of the best in Asia in terms of quality water rafting and professionals.
Mountaineering: One of the worlds’ most professional mountaineering services available here in Nepal.
Jungle Safaries: One of the best jungle Safari operations in Asia.
Helicopter Services: Most tourists’ destinations are easily accessible by a variety of helicopter services.
Charter Air Services: Permission for chartered air services is easily obtained from the Department of Civil Aviation.

Popular Tourist Destinations (By air/Road)

Gorkha, Pokhara, Baglung, Tansen, Lumbini, Janakpur, Bardia, Sukla-Phanta, Chitwan, Dhankuta, Dharan, Ilam, Dolakha, Koshi Tappu are to name a few.

Popular Tourist Destinations (By trek)

Everest, Annapurna, Jomsom, Manang, Mustang,Ganesh Himal (Ruby Valley)? Dolpo, Rara, Jumla, Lukla, Syanboche, Larke, Rowaling, Khptad, Manaslu, Makalu, Barun, Gosainkunda, Langtang, Helambu, Namche, Muktinath, Kanchanjunga are to name a few.

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